The retina is like the film in a camera. It is the seeing tissue of the eye. When the focused light hits the retina, a picture is created and sent to the brain through the optic nerve (the nerve of the eye), thus giving us vision.
Retina has two parts: The peripheral retina and central Macula. Macula being the central part is capable of producing sharp and clear image. These clear images enable us to read, write and do all fine work.
Conditions like Diabetes, Age related Macular degeneration and Macular holes can damage retina.